Sunday, March 15, 2020

How Organizational Changes Affect Employees Within An Organization

How Organizational Changes Affect Employees Within An Organization Introduction Research Background An organizational change can be described as a systematic approach to transitioning organizations, team members and individuals from the prevailing state to a desired future state (Lewis, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on How Organizational Changes Affect Employees Within An Organization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is a process within an organization that aims at assisting stakeholders to accept changes in their organizations or individuals affiliated with the organizations. The need for organizational change has been necessitated by the increasing market pressures (Lewis, 2011). In this regard, companies are often effecting changes so as to remain competitive in the market. Organizational changes can be done in numerous ways. They may entail realigning organizational goals and objectives, changes in budgets, reducing or increasing the number of employees in a project or within a department (Lewis, 2011). Organizational change management process requires some fundamental structures and tools to effectively control any form of organizational change (Lewis, 2011). In this case, the main objective is to capitalize on the benefits and curtail consequences for employees; besides, care is taken to guarantee that the process does not cause disruptions. Even though this is the case, organizational changes can have direct effects on all departments from junior to senior employees within an organization (Lewis, 2011).Advertising Looking for proposal on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, irrespective of the nature of change to be effected, the crucial aspect is an organization’s ability to win the buy-in of its employees in relation to the change (Lewis, 2011). Change is an unavoidable fact of any corporate organization; it also generally permeates in the society, thereby affecting everyone and every corporate organization. Therefore, the operations and structures of corporate organizations must have the capability of responding to change. The need to respond to change is brought about by changes in economic conditions, government involvement, limited resources and tight competitions among business entities (Lewis, 2011). Even though organizational changes are never deliberately intended to negatively affect employees, many employees still find themselves disadvantaged. Problem Statement Employees have been the main victims of organizational changes (Patterson, 2012; Allcorn, 2005). When employees are not well prepared and involved in an organizational change process, they are likely to be negatively affected by the change (Russel McGovern, 2012). Besides, failing to secure employees’ buy-in can prove to be disastrous to an organization’s change process (Bogardus, 2009). In this regard, many organizations do not pay at tention to how changes may affect employees on an individual basis. This is one of the reasons many organizations do not realize successful change processes. It is often important for an organization to find appropriate ways to involve its employees during the planning and execution of changes.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on How Organizational Changes Affect Employees Within An Organization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, many organizations fail to do this, the consequence of which is the inability to realize how the changes affect employees commitment, behaviors and attitudes. The following are the list of problems and related sub-problems: The main problem is: How do changes in banks affect employees at individual levels? The related sub-problems are: How do bank employees perceive organizational changes with respect to their job specification? How do bank employees cope with the effects of organi zational changes? How are bank employees prepared for planned organizational changes? How do planned organizational changes impact staff turnover? Research Objectives and the Scope of the Research The research study has the following objectives: To explore how changes affect bank employees at personal levels. To evaluate employee’s perceptions of organizational changes in regards to their work specifications. To examine how bank employees cope with organizational changes. To investigate the way bank employees are prepared for organizational changes. To find out how organizational changes affect staff turnover. With respect to scope, the study will focus on how organizational changes affect employees within an organization. Besides, the research will be confined to the banking industry whereby employees of different banks will be surveyed and interviewed. Since there are numerous banks within the country, and owing to the limited time, the research will only consider survey ing and interviewing employees from only a few selected banks. Besides, it is worth pointing out that the data will be gathered qualitatively and then coded for analysis. The instruments of data collection will only be two: structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires. The study will only be done for the purposes of academics. In this case, there will be no need to conduct a large-scale research study.Advertising Looking for proposal on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature Review There exist many research and literature materials on the effects of organizational changes on employees. Various scholars have examined the effects with respect to different aspects of employees’ working environments. Indeed, a study by Biron, Karanika-Murray and Cooper (2012) acknowledge the fact that there is a growing interest in cascading change through the hierarchical levels in corporate organizations and finally to individual employees. This implies that interventions at organizational levels often have different effects on different departments and individuals. Another study by Saksvik (2009) has stressed out the significance of an individual employee’s perception and participation in an organizational change process. Saksvik (2009) argues that the success of an organizational change process greatly depends on the degree to which employees are involved and how they perceive organizational change processes. However, the study does not address how the changes impact individual employees. This implies that the scope of the study did not capture how employees were individually impacted by changes in the organizations they worked for. This provides a gap that this study seeks to seal through a survey and interviews. Hansson, Vingard, Arnetz and Anderzen (2008) conducted a controlled study to examine the impact of organizational change on workers’ job satisfaction, exhaustion from work and self-reported health conditions. The study was divided into two groups: one group of individuals affected by organizational changes and another one as a reference group of individuals not affected by the changes. The outcome of the study pointed out to the fact that there was the importance of taking into account the interest of individual employees’ plight during the planning process of organizational changes. However, the study only dealt with the consequences of change on workers in relation to only a few selected aspects. It did not provide a holistic approach to the study of the effects, hence its limited scope. In this regard, this study will widen the scope and look at the effects of organizational changes on an employee in a holistic manner. Many different researchers contend that an organizational change is typically activated by a relevant environmental change that, once acknowledged by a corporate organization, results in an unintentionally generated response (Lewis, 2011; Contento, 2010). The implication of this is that changes within an organization are intended to transform crucial organizational variables that further have effects on the stakeholders of the organization and job-related behaviors, especially employees. Other scholars also describe change as an empirical observation of differences in a state or form over a period of time within an organizational entity (Antoniou Cooper, 2005; Singh, 2009). According to their perception, the entity may be a service or product, work group or an individual’s job (Antoniou Cooper, 2005; Singh, 2009). This means that an organizational change can be perceived as a critical event, which can prospectively evoke stress reactions and other forms of negative consequences in workers. Moreover, employees normally face unique sets of workplace stress factors emanating from a changing work environment, which may be stressful for employees. However, it is important to note that workplace stresses are not only brought about by organizational changes. Even though this is partly true, the scholars failed to acknowledge other variant factors that result in stress among employees. In this regard, Barling, Kelloway and Frone (2005) argue that sources of workplace stresses may include the position held, workload and time spend working. In this respect, a further study is necessary to determine whether or not an organizational change results in stresses for employees and how employees cope with such a situation. This proves that the argument by Antoniou and Cooper (2005) and Signh (2009) were biased; their studies did not take into consideration other factors that, apart from organizational changes, may result in workplace stresses. Joseph and Chacko (2010) argue that corporate organizations exist in a dynamic and changing environment. They further state that most of the corporate organizations undergo extensive changes as resources increasingly become scarce; the implication of this is that employees are required to do more with limited resources. In this case, Joseph and Chacko (2010) reveal that any change will have definite effects on individual employees. The consequence of these effects may be negative in terms of economic and social life of each employee. These, in turn, influence the employees’ behaviors, beliefs and attitudes. The bulk of research studies that have been conducted on organizational change only focused on an organizational perspective while ignoring an individual angle (Packard, 2 013; Peacock, 2008). Such research studies seem to either evaluate an organization’s strategic adaptation or environmental changes (Malm, 2008). Consequently, researchers have clearly neglected the attitudes and behaviors of employees charged with the implementation of planned changes; it is noteworthy of the fact that these employees are very important to the success of an organization’s change process (Wittig, 2012; Jimmieson White, 2011). Hence, most scholars have created a reasonable understanding of how corporate organizations take care of their environment and how particular contextual variables actually impact the achievement of specific organizational changes (Alkhaffaf, 2011). However, the scholars have done less with regards to how individual employees perceive changes taking place within a corporate organization. Moreover, the scholars have also failed to examine how such perceptions are impacted or influenced by particular organizational changes and their ultimate response to the changes. Therefore, this research study seeks to add to the little that is known about the impact of organizational changes on individual employees. Other studies show that employees’ opposition is the greatest obstacle to the implementation of organizational changes (Mittal, 2012; Pasmore, 2010). Workers create opposition to change since they have no other options but to acquire new talents that are relevant to the changes being prompted. The research studies show that employees have never disagreed with the necessity for change; they only experience what is known as the fear of the unknown and the capability of adapting to the new changes. Vividly, these studies succeeded in finding out the reasons employees resist organizational changes; however, they failed to precisely establish how the changes impacted the employees thereby making them resist the changes. This is also a significant gap that this research will seek through a logically designed st udy. Dean (2008) argues that despite the fact that organizational changes affect employees, effective and efficient change management is able to streamline the processes of change and minimize the negative effects on employees. He further posits that when an organizational change is appropriately managed, employees are able to understand the benefits of a suggested change and hence accept it. However, it is important to note that some changes may end up still having negative effects on employees even if they are to be appropriately managed. For instance, it has been noted that employees can only be motivated to participate in a change process if he or she is sure of getting expected returns on personal input. However, where a change process directly targets employees, especially in relation to salary reductions and layoffs, they are likely to be negatively affected, irrespective of whether the change process is well managed or not. Therefore, the argument by the Dean (2008) that an appropriate management of a change process motivates employees to support the change is generalist in nature and does not reflect the reality. The researcher should have noted that there are intervening or moderating factors that must come into play during a change process to determine whether an employee is willing to support the change or decline to do so. Another study highlightes the fact that some organizational changes that fill the work environment with uncertainty result in low work morale among workers (Harrington, 2011). Consequently, most of them become cautious when it comes to taking risks; in this case, job performance and productivity go down and the employees become emotionally withdrawn from work. The study additionally reveals that when a corporate organization undergoes an organizational change, such as a merger or acquisition, downsizing and departmental restructuring, it is likely to make workers have the feelings of uncertainty, insecurity, stress and fretfulne ss. It is important to note that this study will have a theoretical underpinning, which is drawn from the motivation theory (Foster, 2007). Some researchers have noted that motivation forces are mostly described as those forces that encourage and sustain human behavior over a given period of time (Ryan, 2012; Held, 2006). In relation to this, the main objective of organizational change efforts is to make employees sustain certain behaviors that enhance and support the organizational changes over a desired period of time; generating commitment is a significant part of the organizational change process. It is noted that a successful implementation of a change process and working with motivated employees are crucial to the sustenance of an organization’s competitiveness (Ryan, 2012; Held, 2006). Therefore, the most appropriate theory on which this study will be grounded is equity theory. Equity Theory was proposed by Adams (Msoroka, 2012). The theory proposes that people view th eir world in the form of comparative inputs and outputs. In this case, they calculate what they invest in their job and the benefit they get out of it (Msoroka, 2012). They then make a comparison between their input and beneficial outcomes, on the one hand, and those of their peers, on the other hand (Msoroka, 2012). After this, they develop a ratio of comparison. If their input/outcome ratios are identical to those of their peers, there is unlikely to be tension. However, any noted difference may result in tensions that may negatively impact organizational change processes (Msoroka, 2012). This is thus a social exchange process in which employees expect benefits that are commensurate with their input during work (Msoroka, 2012). The variables that entail the social exchange in the context of an organizational change include resistance to change, commitment to a process of change and justice (Msoroka, 2012). Justice, in this case, is a measure of how an employee may perceive some ou tcomes he or she gets from the organization following his or her input during the change processes (Msoroka, 2012). According to Adam’s theory of motivation, if an employee perceives that he or she has not been treated justly, then he or she is likely to have a negative attitude and behavior towards working in the organization (Msoroka, 2012). Therefore, the Equity Theory can help in understanding how organizational changes affect employees at personal levels. Theoretical Framework This research study will be guided by a theoretical framework. There will be two main forms of variables: independent variables and dependent variables. In a research study, the independent variables are the influencing or cause variables that lead to specific resultant outcomes (Wood Ross-Kerr, 2010). Dependent variables can be described as the principle variables in a research study. They can be defined as the outcomes that a researcher wants to predict by manipulating or causing change in the i ndependent variables (Babbie, 2011; Kothari, 2008). Thus, a researcher’s main aim is to establish the interplay between the independent and the dependent variables. There are also other variables that play a significant role in a research process. These are known as moderator variables. Moderator variables are those variables that have strong contingent effects on the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables (Sekaran Bougie, 2010). It is important to note that the independent variables will be considered to be the organizational changes that take place within the banks that will be studied. The independent variables will be the effects resulting due to independent variables; the dependent variables will therefore, entail the effects the organizational changes have on the employees of the banks that will be studied. It is also important to note that there will be intervening or moderator variables which will determine the type of effects organizational changes will have on employees. The following represents a diagram of a theoretical framework for the study: The main hypotheses for study include: Organizational changes negatively affect the attitudes of employees when they are not involved in the change process. Poor planning and implementation of organizational changes reduce employees’ job performances. The type of leadership enforced during organizational change processes within an organization impacts the beliefs and behaviors of employees. Proposed Research Methodology Research Methodology The study will utilize a qualitative method. A qualitative research is a method of inquiry that is used to gather information related to a deeper understanding of human behaviors. Besides, this method of research study allows personal ideas, thoughts and concepts to be integrated into research findings. A qualitative research method provides very rich explanations of issues that the use of a quantitative research method cannot a llow (Merriam, 2009; Creswell, 2012). Importantly, a qualitative research method yields information about people’s real experiences, feelings, opinions and knowledge (Flick, 2009). Therefore, having considered the type of data required to achieve the objectives of this research study, a qualitative research method is considered to be the most appropriate. Furthermore, the setting of the study will be in the form of a survey research and structured interviews. A survey research is usually utilized to evaluate beliefs, views and sentiments of individuals or subjects being studied. The use of survey research enables a researcher to analyze individuals’ behaviors that cannot be analyzed through other settings, like experimental settings (Andres, 2012). Besides, the study process will also take place in an interview setting. Interviews will be helpful to the researcher in terms of creating an affinity with the participants, hence permitting the collection of adequate inform ation. The survey process will involve identifying respondents in different banks. The questionnaires will then be taken to each bank for the respondents to complete. This approach will be taken because it may be difficult to gather all respondents together in the study process due to their tight schedules at the banks and the possibility of some of them failing to turn up for the study. With respect to the structured interviews, the study will also be conducted in each bank. The interviewees will be asked in advance to spare a portion of their time to participate in the interviews. Each of the interviewees will then be interviewed for not more than 10 minutes. Data Collection Methods During the process of data collection, a triangulated approach will be used. With respect to this, open ended questionnaires and structured interviews will be utilized as instruments of data collection. It is worth noting that a triangulated method of data collection combines a range of data collection techniques that ensure sufficient information is gathered for a study (Samsonowa, 2011). With triangulation, the levels of threats to internal validity are detected and dealt with promptly. This, therefore, results in a stronger research design and more reliable and valid research findings or outcomes (Nykiel, 2007). A sample of respondents will be selected from 8 banks. In this case, a simple random sampling method will be used to recruit 5 respondents from each bank. Thus, in total, there will be 40 respondents for this research study. It is important to note that there is a possibility of some respondents failing to turn up for the study. In this regard, they will still be replaced through a simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is preferred as the most appropriate sampling technique due to a number of reasons. First, the use of a random sampling technique allows every item within a population to have an equal chance of being selected for inclusion in a research study ( Antonisamy, 2010). In cases where a population is homogenous, a simple random sampling can guarantee representativeness within a research study. This implies that there is a high possibility of having a population under study to be sufficiently represented in a research study (Fink, 2006). In addition, a random sampling technique is one of the easiest approaches to selecting sample populations; it is time saving and a cheaper means in terms of cost. During the sampling process, research ethics will be observed. No individual will be coerced to participate in the study. Instead, every participant will be allowed to pull out of the study at his or her own will. Moreover, no form of deception will be used to enlist the participation of respondents. The triangulated instruments of data collection, as earlier mentioned, include structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires.Considering the context of this research study, structured interviews will be crucial to the study since they are usually more efficient than other forms of data collection (Hersen, 2011). Furthermore, the use of structured interviews enables a researcher to administer similar questions in a similar order, thereby ensuring standard responses from respondents (Hersen, 2011). The choice of open-ended questionnaires has also been informed by numerous factors. One of the reasons is that open-ended questionnaires allow respondents to answer questions by providing information according to their own perceptions (Kumar, 2005). Besides, during the study process, respondents are often free to provide as much information as they are able because they are not limited as in the case when they are to answer closed questionnaires (Kumar, 2005). Moreover, another advantage of using open-ended questionnaires is that they enable a researcher to collect accurate data. This happens in two ways. First, it is unlikely that respondents will forget responses they have to provide if they are allowed to respond free ly. Second, open-ended questionnaires ensure that respondents read and understand the questions before giving their response, unlike in closed-questionnaires where a respondent may simply disregard questions and end up providing wrong responses (Kumar, 2005). This happens when respondents are given very many questions with numerous options to choose from. During the data collection process, the respondents will be assured of the fact that the information they will provide on the questionnaires will be kept confidential and that their identities will also be kept confidential. Moreover, the opinion of every participant will be respected. Furthermore, the researcher will respect the time of the respondents, especially during interview sessions. This will be important in terms of gaining their trust and future cooperation. The data analysis process will involve inspection, transformation and cleaning with the aim of highlighting important and useful information. After the foregoing pro cess, the data will be coded. Coding is termed as an explanatory technique that is used to consolidate the data in a methodical fashion and provide a way to present the clarification of the data into specific quantitative techniques. With respect to this, the data will be categorized into themes. The themes of the data will then be coded and entered into a computer system where it will be analyzed through a data analysis program known as SPSS. The statistical techniques to be used include frequencies, chi-square, percentages and other central tendencies. References Alkhaffaf, M. (2011). The Impact of Empowering Employees on Organizational Development: A Case Study of Jordan ICT Sector. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 8(7), 800-820. Allcorn, S. (2005). Organizational Dynamics and Intervention: Tools for Changing the Workplace. New York, US: M.E. Sharpe. Andres, L. (2012). Designing and Doing Survey Research. London, UK: SAGE. Antoniou, A., Cooper, C. (2005). Research Comp anion to Organizational Health Psychology. New York, US: Edward Elgar Publishing. Antonisamy, B. (2010). Biostats: Prin App. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Babbie, E. R. (2011). The Basics of Social Research. London, UK: Cengage Learning. Barling, J., Kelloway, E., Frone, M. (2005). Handbook of Work Stress. London, UK: SAGE. Biron, C., Karanika-Murray, M., Cooper, C. (2012). Organizational Interventions. New York, US: Routledge. Bogardus, A. (2009). PHR/SPHR Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide. Winchester, Hampshire: John Wiley Sons. Contento, I. (2010). Nutrition Education: Linking Research, Theory, and Practice. New York, US: Jones Bartlett Learning. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. London, UK: SAGE Publications. Dean, R. (2008). Leadership Communications and Organizational Change: A Case Study of the Effect of Leadership Communications in Shaping Employee Perceptions of Chang e Efforts at Two Nuclear Power Facilities. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest. Fink, A. (2006). How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide. London, UK: SAGE. Flick, U. (2009). An Introduction to Qualitative Research. London: SAGE. Foster, R. (2007). Individual Resistance, Organizational Justice, and Employee Commitment to Planned Organizational Change. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest. Hansson, A., Vingard, E., Arnetz, B., Anderzen, I. (2008). Organizational Change, Health, and Sick Leave among Health Care Employees: A Longitudinal Study Measuring Stress Markers, Individual, and Work Site Factors. Work Stress, 22(1), 68-85. Harrington, J. H. (2011). Streamlined Process Improvement. New York, US: McGraw Hill Professional. Held, D. (2006). Models of Democracy. Cambridge, UK: Stanford University Press. Hersen, M. (2011). Clinicians Handbook of Adult Behavioral Assessment. San Diego, California: Gulf Professional Publishing. Jimmieson, N., White, K. M. (2011). Predicting Employee Intentions to Support Organizational Change: An Examination of Identification Processes during a Re-Brand. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55(2), 330-350. Joseph, B., Chacko, R. (2010). Effects of Organizational Change on Managerial Trust in the Context of Employee Buyout in India. Journal of Military Medicine, 13(3), 170-180. Kothari, C. R. (2008). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi, India: New Age International. Kumar, R. (2005). Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. London, UK: SAGE. Lewis, L. (2011). Organizational Change: Creating Change through Strategic Communication. Winchester: Hampshire: John Wiley Sons. Malm, J. R. (2008). Six Community College Presidents: Organizational Pressures, Change Processes and Approaches to Leadership. Community College Journal of Research Practice, 32(8), 610-619. Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. Winchester, Hampshire: John Wiley Sons. Mittal, S. (2012). Managing Employ ee Resistance to Change: A Comparative Study of Indian Organizations and MNCs in Delhi-NCR Region. Researchers World: Journal of Arts, Science Commerce, 3(4), 60-79. Msoroka, M. (2012). Motivating Workers in Educational Institutions: Adams Equity and Maslows Need Hierarchy Theoretical Implications. Munich, Germany: GRIN Verlag. Nickel, R. (2007). Handbook of Marketing Research Methodologies for Hospitality and Tourism. New York, US: Routledge. Packard, T. (2013). Organizational Change: A Conceptual Framework to Advance the Evidence Base. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23(1), 70-100. Pasmore, W. (2010). Research in Organizational Change and Development. New York, US: Emerald Group Publishing. Patterson, J. (2012). Coming Even Cleaner About Organizational Change. Lanham, Maryland: RL Education. Peacock, D. (2008). Weaving the Web into Organizational Life: Organizational Change and the World Wide Web in Cultural Heritage Organizations. Journal of Arts Management, Law Society. 38(1), 87-99. Russel, D., McGovern, M. (2012). A New Brand of Expertise. New York, US: Routledge. Ryan, R. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation. New York, US: Oxford University Press. Saksvik, P. (2009). Prerequisites for Healthy Organizational Change. Trondheim, Norway: Bentham Science Publishers. Samsonowa, T. (2011). Industrial Research Performance Management. New York, US: Springer. Sekaran, U., Bougie, R. (2010). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. Winchester, Hampshire: John Wiley Sons. Singh, K. (2009). Organizational Change Development. New Delhi, India: Excel Books India. Wittig, C. (2012). Employees’ Reactions to Organizational Change. OD Practitioner, 44(2), 20-37. Wood, M., Ross-Kerr, J. C. (2010). Basic Steps in Planning Nursing Research: From Question to Proposal. New York, US: Jones Bartlett Learning.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Safety management assignment # 2 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Safety management # 2 - Assignment Example Falling down and experiencing an injury are a hazard that must be identified and a rough estimate given. Another expected probability is equipment failure. Chances that the ladder will be faulty must be kept in mind. The next essential step in a job safety analysis is determining the solution to the hazards identified. By this, the hazards can be controlled and safety effected. Hazards can be controlled through administrative controls and or engineering solutions. The recommended steps that will reduce hazard risks are identified, as well as the risks of the workplace injury or illness. The following are the appropriate job safety analysis steps to follow. First, job with the highest risk for a workplace injury or illness is selected. In this case, the task to be done is to fix a leaking roof. The highest risk is identified as well as the potential injuries and or illness. Next, the necessary steps for completion of the task are identified and recorded. All probable hazard risks are identified in accordance to each step done. The last step is the determination and record of the recommended procedures for performing each step. This will reduce the hazard risk. Managing the safety function entails planning, organizing, controlling, directing, and staffing. In regard to planning, the departmental needs, resources and mission must be kept into consideration. The records of various departmental needs must be updated so as to know the exact required needs. Planning aspect comprises of time, money, materials, and personnel needs. Planning is an essential aspect of management. The second management function is organizing. This means that the staff in the organization must be properly organized. The chain of command must be followed so as maintain the organization and efficient working conditions. The factor of the organization is present in successful companies; this keeps the motto of the organization intact.

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Thanksgiving Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Thanksgiving - Essay Example Sarah’s husband had died from pneumonia leaving her to take care of the children, the youngest of whom was yet to be born. In spite of the challenging task of bringing up her five children as a widow, she was passionate about campaigning for women. Among others, she fought for secure work environments for women, women and girls’ educational opportunities, and women’s opportunities of becoming teachers and doctors. Generally, Sarah used pen and paper in achieving her goals. Among her most famous literary work included Mary Had a Little Lamb sung by many America children to date. She also wrote poetry as well as a novel during her free time. Additionally, she published many famous authors such as Charles Dickens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe and Harriet Beecher Stowe2. Sarah embarked on a one-woman campaign of having Thanksgiving commemorated as a national holiday as early as 1827. She did this using her books as well as the magazines that she editedi. In t he year1847, she earnestly began promoting Thanksgiving Day, imploring presidentsii as well as all territories and states’ governors to set up the last Thursday of November as a common Thanksgiving Day. Many presidents to whom she wrote did not agree with her plea and beginning June or July of every year, Sarah would publicize the progress regarding her national acceptance goal in her editorials.

Friday, January 31, 2020

Operational Definition and Model Building; Introduction to Scanning Assignment - 1

Operational Definition and Model Building; Introduction to Scanning - Assignment Example changes are those that are leading towards even more changes as has been seen in case of the entertainment industry as well as the ways in which the information is delivered. In this way not only the production of these packages is affected but also the ways in which they are produced and consumed. These are only some of the institutions that have been seen to be affected by the IT related innovations but here the point that needs to be emphasized is the changes in the social lives of the community citizens with an understanding towards the roles that are to be played in the society. Moreover the political lives and interactions on the political level have also changed. There have been many arguments in this regard as it has been said that with an addition in the technologies as emails, online discussions as well as the fact availability of information as these are the reason that will lead to the formation of a society that shall be more engaged, more informed as well as a participatory society in which the society members will be more inclined towards the computers as well as the internet. In this kind of society the human interest as well as beliefs is the ones that can be manipulated. These are all the changes that are to be argued in case of there pros and cons. In this case there has been no realization as to what can be the meaning deduced from these changes and if these are the positive changes or negative changes as they seem. With this it has to be seen that are the colligated changes as are seen in the community’s social lives are going to bring out any positive effect or any negative effect. As has been discussed there are some changes that are going to be shoeing there moderate effects as well as there are some changes that will have lesser effects on the social lives still there are many that can have dire consequences. In this very argument the main part of discussion can be the usage of these technologies especially the internet. The highest

Thursday, January 23, 2020

The 3 Branches of the American Government Essay -- History Politics Go

The 3 Branches of the American Government The constitution was established by men who had experienced the dictatorships of Europe and had escaped from its grasp. They sought to establish a form of government that would never allow a dictatorship or tyrant ruler to hold power over the people like in the places they had fled. With their creation of the foundation of what our government is today they created a system where 3 branches were all of equal power and each could be overruled by another which prevented any branch becoming superior of another. The separation of powers provides a system of shared power called Checks and Balances.(2) The three branches are legislative, judicial and executive and they each have specific powers to balance those of the other branches. The Legislative branch is made up of the House and Senate. The Executive branch is made of the President, Vice-President, and the Departments. The Judicial branch is made of the Federal courts and the Supreme Court. Each of these branches has certain powers, an d each of these powers is limited, or checked, by the other two branches. By forcing the three branches to be monitored by the others, no one branch can gain enough power to become superior over the others. The American Governments system of being divided into 3 branches that can restrain one another is the most efficient way to govern the U.S. in a fair manner and without any branch becoming more powerful than another.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Legislative Branch, also known as the Congress, is made up of two houses and their main job is to make the laws of the nation.(1) They are also responsible for checking the actions of the other two branches that make up the Federal government. The two houses that make up the legislative branch are, the House of Representatives and the Senate. Some of the main powers of this branch consist of: the passing of all federal laws; establishment of all lower federal courts; can override a Presidential veto; and can impeach the President. (1) The lower house is the House of Representatives which is made up of members called Representatives. To qualify for becoming a House member a person must be 25 years old or older, must have been a U.S. citizen for seven years, and must live in the district he or she plans to represents. (1) Each state has a number of Representatives depending on the population of that state ... ...was with the hopes of a government of democracy where the will of the people was the main power behind the government. With only two branches there would be a constant battle for power and the merging of any of the three current branches with one another would cause a very negative effect on the balance of power . This system of separating power between three branches has provided a balanced way for the government to carry out the needs of maintaining a successful nation and has proven to be successful in the prevention of tyrannical or dictatorial type leadership taking place. With each branch having a certain area of responsibility and the ability to be monitored and restrained by the other branches our government has managed to uphold the ideals of the original framers of our nation. Their quest for a nation with a strong central government that is for the people and that ensures that the freedoms of the American people are never lost has been achieved and the original idea of three branches has proven to be the perfect balance. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

I Am Not Esther Essay

In the text ‘I am not Esther’ written by Fleur Beale a character I liked was Kirby Greenland. I liked Kirby because she taught me about the themes of loyalty, deception and a sense of your own identity. I liked Kirby because she had experiences a lot of changes in her life. The most significant change was finding her own identity as she grew and developed as a teenager. She was always determined to find her mother even when it felt like there was a brick wall at the end of the road. I also liked Kirby because she stayed true to who she really is even when she was forced to be someone who she really isn’t and also Kirby is also caring and always there if someone needs her. I am not Esther is about a loving mother and daughter relationship torn apart as a mother had to leave her life behind and leave her life and moves to Africa, but later we discovers that really she is still in the country but in a mental hospital. Her daughter has been told to stay with relatives that he has never heard of but they are no ordinary family, as they are members from a strict, very religious cult. They have changed her name from Kirby to Esther and forced to follow the severe set of social standards by the elders have created. They cannot interact with the normal outside world as there is no television, no radio, no newspaper and no mirrors. She is forced to wear long, modest clothing. She has no idea where her mother is and is beginning to question her own identity.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Movie Review Psycho And Vertigo - 1721 Words

Allison Brock Mrs. Miko Film December 2, 2014 Thrilling Hitchcock Films For decades his films have left his audience with feelings of paranoia. Psycho and Vertigo are two films in particular that have left a huge impression. Alfred Hitchcock was known for introducing many different techniques to film making, one being the creative use of the camera. He used the camera more as a set of eyes rather than a simple tool on stage. He did not let his audiences simply view his movies; he made audiences feel like they were in them by using angles that the character sees. This way the viewers can see through the eyes of the character and gain an emotional attachment for them. Alfred Hitchcock’s secret to success was his subtly and mastery of†¦show more content†¦This film is widely considered as the one that popularized slasher films, a subgenre of horror. This film was based loosely on the novel of the same name which was inspired by the real life serial killer Ed Gein. The violence had to be tamed as to not traumatize the audience. By making the film black and white it did not scare the audience with rich sharp colors of blood flying everywhere. Using black and white film also added a dramatic effect with shadows, an effect that is harder to create with colored film. Not only did it help him lower the cost of the film, but it helped the viewers get a handle the film’s graphic nature. On the other hand Vertigo is a story takes place in San Francisco in the 1950 s. It was released in 1958 as a psychological thriller mystery film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock. The screenplay was written by Alec Coppel and Samuel A. Taylor and based on the 1954 novel D entre les morts by Boileau-Narcejac. Vertigo stars James Stewart as Scottie, a retired detective, and Kim Novak as Judy Barton, who gets disguised as Madeleine, a woman hired by Scottie s friend to act as his wife in order to frame Scottie. Scottie s fear of heights is intensified by using powerful music and a bird s eye view of the street below, to give the viewer an impression of height. Close-ups of Scottie s face reveal his intense fear, making it more convincing to the audience. As the story